Having a formula for approaching different chord qualities can help you to quickly incorporate and internalize new language over these sounds. Compiled here is an introductory sequence for deciphering variations on the 5 most common chord types in improvised music.
The good news is that once you learn the chords in this study, you will have covered 95% of all the chords you will ever need to know in Jazz Improvisation.
Utilizing this method when encountering any chord quality in any key is a sure fire way to have a solid foundation for how to improvise over any sound. Like everything, practice will be required for facility of this information, but these fundamentals regarding chords and their substitutions will be things that you can use for the rest of your musical life.